To contain as a secondary or subordinate element.
To consider with or place into a group, class, or total:
thanked the host for including us.
Middle English includen
from Latin incl?e [to enclose]
源自 拉丁语 incl?e [关闭,封闭]
in- [in] * see in- 2
in- [入,进入] *参见 in-2
claudere [to close]
include, comprise, comprehend, embrace, involve
These verbs mean to take in or contain as part of something larger.
Include and comprise both take as their objects things or persons that are constituent parts.
Include 和comprise 均指把人或事物包括进去并成为其组成的部分.
Comprise usually implies that all of the components are stated:
The book comprises (that is, consists of or is composed of) 15 chapters.
Include, like the remaining terms, more often implies an incomplete listing:
included a reference to the accompanist in the review of the concert;
will include an amount for postage in my payment.
“Through the process of amendment, interpretation and court decision I have finally been included in ‘We, the people’” (Barbara C. Jordan).
Comprehend and embrace usually refer to the taking in of subordinate elements as part of something broader:
Comprehend 和embrace 通常指纳入一些附属性的成分：
The study of art comprehends both aesthetic and intellectual considerations.
No single theory can embrace and explain every facet of human behavior.
Involve usually suggests inclusion as a logical consequence or necessary condition: